Enlightenment and ontology. Russian Preclassic Enlightenment: Kireyevsky





ontology, Russian Enlightenment, religious Enlightenment, Slavophiles, sacred tsar, holistic man


This work continues a series of articles The Enlightenment and ontology. It investigates the ontological component of the Russian Preclassic Enlightenment. The author claims that the Russian Enlightenment arises in the 30s-40s of XIX century. As the founders of the Russian Preclassic Enlightenment he considers Kireyevsky, Chaadayev and Herzen. This article considers the philosophy of Kireyevsky.
Based on the concept of the nature and features of the Enlightenment, developed in the preceding articles, the author argues that Kireyevsky is a figure of the Enlightenment. The basic concept in the philosophy of Kireyevsky is the concept of education. It is a process of transformation of reality under the influence of education and the result of this process – a certain state of spirituality. The Russian Orthodox education formed the basis of Russian civilization and the very nature of the Russian people. The influence of Western education damaged the foundations of civilization and the nature of the people. To correct damage is possible by means of a new philosophy which should be based on the synthesis of Christian Orthodox and Western education. The aim of this project is to implement the utopia of holistic man. Kireyevsky also emphasizes the inextricable and essential link between the Russian Education and literature. This allows to consider Kireyevsky as the representative of the Enlightenment.
The author also shows that Kireyevsky constructs two ontological models. The first model could be called ethnic and civilizational. Civilization is a phenomenon, able to change its own ontological status. The second model can be called prophetic. As a carrier of the sacred word, a writer appears as a prophet and lawgiver. His work provides the highest ontological status for society. The first model is new. The second model descends from the previous stages of development of the Russian Enlightenment. At the same time Kireyevsky tries to overshadow the traditional ontological model where the main role is played by the sacred tsar, even though the traditional model was basic then in Russia.

Author Biography

Vsevolod Kuznetsov, Vinnytsia National Technical University

Senior lecturer of Philosophy Department


Antonov, K. M. (2006). Philosophy by I. V. Kireyevski: anthropological aspect. [In Russian]. Moscow: PSTGU.

Basil (Sayapin), monk, Sharipov, A. M. (2006). Ivan Kireyevsky: Back to basics. [In Russian]. Moscow: Glavarchiv.

Bazhenova, T. P. (2004). Russian Enlightenment as a manifestation of the Europeanization of Russian culture. [In Russian]. Analitika kulturologii, 1. Retrieved from http://www.analiculturolog.ru/journal/archive/item/74-russian-education-as-a-manifestation-of-europeanization-russian-culture.html

Bazhenova, T. P., & Syomina, V. S. (2008). The essence of the Europeanization of Russian culture. [In Russian]. Analitika kulturologii, 1(10). Retrieved from http://www.analiculturolog.ru/journal/archive/item/548-article_30-2.html

Chikova, V. A. (2015). The interaction of secular and church began in the public life of Russia in the middle of the XVIII century. [In Russian]. Nauchnyj dialog, 12(48), 400-411.

Dorotheus, Abba. (2010). The teachings and epistles of our father Abba Dorotheus. [In Russian]. Moscow: Blagovest.

Halperin, S. (2010, May 10). Ivan Kireyevsky and his idea of integral knowledge. [In Russian]. Retrieved from http://ruskline.ru/analitika/2010/05/10/ivan_kireevskij_i_ego_ideya_celnogo_znaniya

Hunter, I. (2003). Rival Enlightenments: Civil and Metaphysical Philosophy in Early Modern Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Ilyin, N. (2008). The tragedy of Russian philosophy. [In Russian]. Moscow: Airis-press.

Kamensky, Z. A. (2003). The philosophy of the Slavophiles. Ivan Kireyevsky and Alexei Khomyakov. [In Russian]. St. Petersburg: RHGI. Retrieved from http://philosophy2.ru/library/kamensky/slavian/01.htm

Kaplin, A. D. (2008). World view of the Slavophiles. The history and future of Russia. [In Russian]. Moscow: Institute of Russian civilization.

Kaplin, A. D. (2011). The Slavophiles, their associates and followers. [In Russian]. Moscow: Institute of Russian civilization.

Katasonov, V. N. (2000). The concept of holistic mind in Russian philosophy and Christianity. In V. L. Shlenov, & L. G. Petrushina (Eds.), Christmas readings’2000: Christianity and philosophy. [In Russian]. Moscow: The Moscow Patriarchate, Department of Religious Education and Catechesis. Retrieved from http://www.katasonov-vn.narod.ru/celr.html

Kireyevsky, I. V. (1911). Complete Works in 2 vols. [In Russian]. Moscow: Printing of the Imperial Moscow University.

Kireyevsky, I. V. (1984). Selected articles. [In Russian]. Moscow: Sovremennik.

Kireyevsky, I. V. (2007). Spiritual Foundations of Russian life. [In Russian]. Moscow: Institute of Russian civilization.

Kireyevsky, I.V. (2002). Mind on the way to the truth. [In Russian]. Moscow: Pravilo very.

Kotel’nikov, V. A. (1984). The writer-philosopher. In I. V. Kireyevsky, Selected articles (pp. 5-28). [In Russian]. Moscow: Sovremennik.

Kuznetsov, V. G. Enlightenment and Ontology. Autochthonous Enlightenments: China. [In Russian]. Sententiae, 30(1), 129-146.

Kuznetsov, V. G. Enlightenment and Ontology. Autochthonous Enlightenments: Europe. [In Russian]. Sententiae, 28(1), 120-137.

Lotman, J. M. (1997). About Russian literature. Articles and Research (1958–1993). [In Russian]. St. Petersburg: Iskusstvo.

Lukin, P. V. (2000). People’s ideas about state power in Russia of the XVII century. [In Russian]. Moscow: Nauka.
Maslin, M. A. (Ed.). (2007). Russian philosophy: Encyclopedia. [In Russian]. Moscow: Algorithm.

Mikhailov, A. J. (2013). Key concepts to describe Orthodoxy in modernizing the Russian Empire: problem formulation, analytical language. [In Russian]. Bulletin of Udmurt University, 3, 105-111.

Morozova, O. M. (2006). The sacred king who killed Nicholas. In P. N. Lukichev, (Ed.), The readings in honor of A. F. Losev. [In Russian]. Novocherkassk: Nabla YuRGTU (NPI). Retrieved from http://www.relga.ru/Environ/WebObjects/tgu-www.woa/wa/Main?textid=2125&level1=main&level2=articles

Morozova, O. M. (2010). He and she are at the threshold of chaos. Nicholas II and Alexandra during the Great War. Dialogue with time. [In Russian]. Almanac of intellectual history, 31, 154-175.

Musa, D. E. (2009). Holistic man like immediate goal of Eastern Christian cultural project. [In Russian]. Scientific notes of Taurida National V. I. Vernadsky University. Series «Philosophy. Sociology», 1, 83-93.

Peskov, A. M. (1992). German complex of the Slavophiles. [In Russian]. Voprosy filosofii, 8, 105-120.

Platonov, O. A. (Ed.). (2009). The Slavophiles. Historical Encyclopedia. [In Russian]. Moscow: Institute of Russian civilization.

Pustarnakov, V. F. (1999). Once again about the nature of Russian philosophy of the Enlightenment of the 1860s. and for the first time of his crisis. [In Russian]. Istoriya filosofii, 4, 57-88.

Pustarnakov, V. F. (2001). Enlightenment philosophy in Russia and in France: experience of comparative analysis. [In Russian]. Moscow: IF RAN. Retrieved from http://philosophy2.ru/iphras/library/pustarnikov/prosv.htm

Rozhkovsky, VB (2004). The idea of holistic spirit in I. V. Kireyevski: culturological reconstruction. [In Russian]. Rostov-on-Don: DGTU.

Shimosato, T. (1995). Crisis of the Enlightenment in Russia and axiology by P. N. Tkachev. [In Russian]. Bulletin of Moscow University. Series 7. Philosophy, 1, 18-26.

Sudakov, A. K. (2011). «The peculiarity of Russia»: Ivan Kireyevsky about the Russian idea and the Russian disaster. [In Russian]. Bulletin of RHGA, 12(3). 159-173.

Sudakov, A. K. (2012). Philosophy of holistic life. World view by I. V. Kireyevsky. [In Russian]. Moscow: «Kanon+» ROOI «Reabilitaziya».

Tsapina, O. A. (2004). Orthodox Enlightenment – oxymoron or historical reality? In S. Ya. Carp, & S. A. Mezin (Eds.), The European Enlightenment and Russian civilization (pp. 301-313). [In Russian]. Moscow: Nauka.

Ustrialov, N. (1916). National problem at the first Slavophiles. [In Russian]. Russkaya mysl, X. Retrieved from http://lib.ru/POLITOLOG/ustrqlow3.txt

Ustrialov, N. (1925). The political doctrine of Slavophilism. [In Russian]. Harbin: Printing the Chinese Eastern Railway. Retrieved from http://lib.ru/POLITOLOG/ustrqlow.txt

Vasiliev, A. A. (2010). Public-legal ideal of the Slavophiles. [In Russian]. Moscow: Institute of Russian civilization.

Wirtschafter, E. K. (2009). Thoughts on the Enlightenment and Enlightenment in Russia. Modern Russian History & Historiography, 2(2), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1163/221023809x00012

Wirtschafter, E. K. (2010). Religion and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Russia: Father Platon at the Court of Catherine II. Slavonic & East European Review, 88(1/2), 180-203.

Wirtschafter, E. K. (2013). Religion and Enlightenment in Catherinian Russia: The Teachings of Metropolitan Platon. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP.

Zemnitskaya, M. A. (2011). Orthodox Enlightenment: synthesis of church and state ideology. In P. S. Kabytov (Ed.), Platonic readings (pp. 159-161). [In Russian]. Samara: Samara University.

Zhivov, V. M., & Uspensky, B. A. (1987). Tsar and God: Semiotic aspects of the sacralization of the monarch in Russia. In B. A. Uspensky (Ed.), Languages and Cultures of translatability problems (pp. 47-53). [In Russian]. Moscow: Nauka. Retrieved from http://krotov.info/history/18/1/uspen_09.htm

Zienkowski, V. V. (1991). The history of Russian philosophy. In 2 vol. [In Russian]. Leningrad: Ego.


Abstract views: 576



How to Cite

Kuznetsov, V. (2017). Enlightenment and ontology. Russian Preclassic Enlightenment: Kireyevsky. Sententiae, 36(1), 51–70. https://doi.org/10.22240/sent36.01.051






Download data is not yet available.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>