Sententiae <p>Journal created by Modern philosophy's research group (Pascalian society).<br>Founded in 2000. Published twice a year, in June and December.<br>Journal DOI: <a href=""></a></p> en-US <div class="copyright_notice&quot;"><br> <ul>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</li> </ul> </div> (Oleg Khoma) (Irvc) Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Peter Lombard on God’s Knowledge and Its Capacities: Sententiae, Book I, Distinctions 38-39 <p>The global Peter Lombard research reinaugurated in 1990s has resulted in a number of recent publications, but the Master of the Sentences’ theology proper is partially underreseached. In particular, a more detailed exposition of the distinctions 35-41 of his <em>Book of Sentences</em> is needed in order to clarify his doctrine of God’s knowledge and its relation to the human free will. The article builds on the earlier established evidence that, for Peter Lombard in distinctions 35-38, God’s knowledge, in general, is not causative, although some causative power has to be ascribed to God’s knowledge of the good. The last part of distinction 38 and the content of distinction 39 further analyze the capacities and functionalities of the divine omniscience and explain how it interacts with acts of human will. The key question here deals with the problem of alternative states of affairs: whether something may be otherwise than God foreknew. As it is shown, Master Peter agrees that it is possible for created things and events to be otherwise than they are, but insists that God’s knowledge must be in any case exhaustive and infallible. He uses a number of logical tools to defend the thesis about God’s perfect knowledge and the possibility of things happening otherwise, but lacks strict definition of the notion of “possibility” used here. The study concludes that in few cases Lombard’s <em>posse </em>could mean a potency or a simple logical possibility, or the diachronic contingency, but the overall theological statement is clear: potentially, God’s knowledge can be different or include alternative state of affairs but it cannot change.&nbsp;</p> Rostislav Tkachenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Human Onthology in Early Modern Crimean Sufism: School of Ibrahim al-Qirimi <p><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5484"><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5340" lang="EN-US">The article covers main features of Early Modern Sufi Philosophy in&nbsp;<span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5341">Crimea</span>. Based on the new discoveries of Arabic manuscripts in Turkey (libraries in Istanbul and Corum) and Germany (Berlin library), the study provides analysis of the Sufi approach towards human onthology, developed by</span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5342" lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5343" lang="EN-US">Crimean thinkers Ibrahim al-Qirimi, Abu Bakr al-Kafawi and finally Hussam al-Din al-Qirimi. Apart from the classical Sufi rethinking of a human being as the body-soul entity making spiritual journey towards final Perfect Man (<em id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5344">al-insan al-kamal</em>)</span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5345" lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5485" lang="EN-US">and approaching ultimate revival, Crimean thinkers also paid great attention to the issue of human freedom, naming it by special term (</span></span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5486"><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5487" lang="EN-US">Arabic&nbsp;</span></span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5246"><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5346" lang="EN-US"><em id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5347">al-istiqlal</em>, literary meaning “independence”)</span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5348" lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span><span id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5349" lang="EN-US">In contrast to rather conservative background of Islamic discursive theology (<em id="m_5758610306110659354yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1529010986098_5350">kalam</em>) and other schools of Islamic philosophical thought of the Post-Classical period, special attention to this concept can be regarded as evidence of some "humanistic" tendencies among thinkers of the Crimean Khanate. The article also notes that this concept of freedom was considered by Crimean thinkers as one of the important conditions for the manifestation of Divine Attributes in human existence; that is, the anthropologic measurement of the pantheistic idea of "unity of being", widely poplular among Sufis of those times. Taking into account the fact that the modern notion of "freedom" in the Arabic philosophical thought is based predominantly on Western concepts, the new reading of Sufi Post-Classical manuscripts reveals autochthonous cultural potential of this tradition.</span></span></p> Mykhaylo Yakubovych ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Philosophical aspect of the lexeme "fortune" in Anthony Radivilovsky’s texts <p>The article contains the historico-philosophical analysis of the lexical and conceptual aspects of the concept of “fortuna” in the texts of Antoniy Radyvylovs’kyj (further A.R.). This problem has not been studied by historians of philosophy yet. The analysis is carried out in the context of Ukrainian moral thought of the Baroque period (1610 - 1680-s).</p> <p>The author proposes the historico-philosophical interpretation of A.R.’s use of the lexeme&nbsp;<em>fortuna</em>&nbsp;and its doublets on the basis of Vilen&nbsp;Gorsky’s methodology. For the first time it has been proven that: (1) the lexeme&nbsp;<em>fortuna</em>&nbsp;was usually translated by Ukrainian intellectuals of the Baroque period as “happiness”; (2) but the&nbsp;<em>fortuna</em>&nbsp;was interpreted by A.R. as the instrument in God’s hands and, therefore, may have either a positive or a negative meaning, depending on the divine providence and the moral virtues of a Christian; (3) the special aspects of how A.R. used the lexical item&nbsp;<em>fortuna</em>&nbsp;and its doublets are: a) the preacher used a Latin lexeme&nbsp;<em>fortuna</em>&nbsp;which is not typical for his entourage; b) depending on the situations, these lexical items may be interchangeable or get specific connotations; (4) in the texts of A.R. the content of the lexeme “fortuna” had not been a full-fledged philosophical concept yet, however it constituted an element of the worldview and beliefs about human destiny, luck, abilities, and happiness; but at the same time A.R.’s views on the fortune are directly based on the texts of ancient and modern Stoics: in particular, Seneca, Boethius, and Lipsius.</p> Volodymyr Spivak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 An Imaginative Meeting at the Entrance to the Temple of Apollo at Delphi: Self-knowledge and Self-love in Johann Georg Hamann and Hryhorii Skovoroda. Comparative analysis <p>At First, the article analyses Hamann’s path to self-knowledge and self-love as a path of Socratic ignorance, which is indeed the highest form of knowledge. For Hamann Socrates is the predecessor of Christ, and Socratic ignorance (I know that I know nothing) is the path to divinization. Subsequently, it is pointed out, how Hryhorii Skovoroda explains the path of self-knowledge and self-love. To illustrate this thought, he makes use of the Ovidian Narcissus myth. Concerning the figure of Narcissus, Skovoroda distinguishes the following three aspects: 1. The Egyptian Narcissus, 2. The Hebraic Narcissus and 3. The Christian Narcissus, i.e. Jesus Christ. These three aspects and corresponding assertions of the Bible designate Skovoroda’s path to divinization. Finally, it points out similarities between Hamann’s and Skovoroda’s understanding of self-knowing and self-love and their fundamental impact for the philosophy of Franz von Baader and his criticism of modern subjectivism.</p> Roland Pietsch ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Evolution of Hryhorii Skovoroda’s Philosophical Views as related to his Spiritual Biography <p>This paper argues&nbsp;that the foundation for Skovoroda’s philosophical evolution was laid by the elements of his existential experience: overcoming the fear of death; uncertainty of an individual’s existence in the world; friendship; a series of events in his social life, simultaneous to changes in his works. The most fundamental factor of this experience was Skovoroda’s Christian identity, particularly his continuous efforts to grasp the meaning of the most crucial dogma of Christian religion – the mystery of Resurrection.</p> <p>The totality of these factors caused further development of Skovoroda’s doctrine. The article schematises the inner logic of this development as follows:&nbsp;(1)&nbsp; discovery of&nbsp;the perspective of love, interpreted as being struck by divine beauty; (2) interpretation of human condition as being on the edge of the created and the divine world; (3)&nbsp; proper assessment of the fact that a human being discovers in its own essence the incorruptible beauty of divine image; (4)&nbsp;comprehension of&nbsp; how love to this image arises; (5)&nbsp;interpretation of man as a being that is&nbsp;capable to grasp the eternity of divine charity, and understand itself as a meta-historical entity that has its continuation in eternity.</p> <p>The existential experience brings Skovoroda to a unique and extremely powerful existential experience of the mystery of Cross, which causes a cathartic effect: having undergone the sufferings of the Cross, the material fire of human&nbsp;<em>ἔρως</em><em>&nbsp;</em>transforms into the living water of divine&nbsp;ἀγάπη,&nbsp;and the confusion of a living creature lost in the world gives way to a tranquil wisdom&nbsp;of a heir of divine gifts and a friend of God.</p> Victor Chernyshov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Menno Simons’ and Martin Luther’s Interpretative Approaches in the Protestant Hermeneutical Horizon <p>The paper compares the hermeneutical strategies of the radical and magisterial branches of Reformation. The author detects the peculiarities of the hermeneutical principles and ways of understanding the biblical text which were offered by Menno Simons, a recognized Anabaptist leader, and compares these principles and ways with their counterparts practiced by Luther and other figures of the classical Reformation. Although the radical reformers did not create a holistic theology, their interpretative strategy is quite significant for understanding the phenomenon of the “Protestant hermeneutics.”</p> <p>Menno Simons’ interpretative system is rarely mentioned in the contemporary historical/philosophical and theological discussions. The author of this article argues that such omission is caused by the domination of one-dimensional stereotypes: the overwhelming majority of the researchers who speak about the Protestant hermeneutics tend to present this area as narrowed and somewhat impoverished as they reduce it to the hermeneutics of Luther and Calvin.</p> <p>The article demonstrates that Menno Simons developed an applied interpretative strategy borrowed from some examples found in the Gospels. This hermeneutical system was founded upon the theocentric idea of personal Revelation and living Presence and thus inevitably led to: (1) “the Bible interprets itself” principle; (2) the search for “the clear meaning of the Scripture” – something that could be different from the original meaning. An interpretative model developed as the result was based on: (a) a holistic approach, (b) applied hermeneutics, (c) corporate hermeneutics, (d) hermeneutics of obedience. Thus it is possible to speak about an independent approach that has an important place in the history of the Protestant hermeneutics.</p> Sergii Sannikov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Friedrich Nietzsche «The Dawn of Day». Power to Translation <p class="m_-1392543748538313618gmail-m_5989915564699313547msonormalmailrucssattributepostfix"><span lang="EN-US">The author claims that the will to translation from foreign languages is an intrinsic tendency of development of any language. The article deals with the following problems of Ukrainian translation of the work&nbsp;«The Dawn of Day» by Friedrich Nietzsche: (1) Reproduction of the poetic style of Nietzsche’s writing. (2) Translation of Nietzsche’s neologisms that are not adopted in modern German language. (3) Interpretation of the influence of Nietzsche’s life experience on his thinking.</span></p> <p class="m_-1392543748538313618gmail-m_5989915564699313547msonormalmailrucssattributepostfix"><span lang="EN-US">The author analyses his own experience of translation of this work. He describes his strategy of translation which is based on the assumption that Nietzsche</span><span lang="UK">’</span><span lang="EN-US">s text should be translated not only as philosophical but also as a poetical one. The style of Nietzsche’s writing is deeply rooted in his life experience, and first of all in his illness. His main concepts express the fundamental aspects of existence. That is why Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche’s thinking can be used as methodological basis for translation of Nietzsche’s works. From this point of view we can understand and translate Nietzsche not only as a philosopher but also as a poet.</span></p> <p class="m_-1392543748538313618gmail-m_5989915564699313547msonormalmailrucssattributepostfix"><span lang="EN-US">So the strategy of translation is based on the following principles: (a) The text should be interpreted in the context of Nietzsche’s life experience. (b) The principal words of Nietzsche should be understood not as rigorous notions but as «existentials». (c) The Ukrainian translation should reproduce not only the meaning of the original text but also the poetical style of Nietzsche’s writing.</span></p> Vakhtang Kebuladze ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 National Philosophy as a Subject of Comparative Research <p class="m_-1392543748538313618gmail-m_5989915564699313547gmail-msonormalcxspmiddlemailrucssattributepostfix"><span lang="UK">The article continues the discussion “Can "national philosophy" be&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">understood as&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">a strictly defined object</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;of research</span><span lang="UK">?”&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">initiated</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;in volume</span><span lang="EN-US">XXX</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;of Sententiae. Analyzing Tomasz Mróz’ book “Selected Issues in the History of Polish Philosophy” (2016), the authors compare the problems of historiography of Polish and Ukrainian philosophy. The&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">authors believe&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">that Mróz</span><span lang="EN-US">’ book</span><span lang="EN-US">offers</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;an interesting&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">perspective</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;o</span><span lang="EN-US">f</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;<wbr>comparative study of national philosophical traditions, the idea of which was&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">suggested</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;earlier by Vasyl Lisovy. The authors focus on the heuristic potential of the Mróz’ analysis of discussions&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">concerning</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;<wbr>possible distinction between the terms “Polish philosophy“ and “philosophy in Poland” and&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">his</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;studies of Plato's reception in Poland. Such analysis allows us to&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">raise several questions</span><span lang="UK">: (1)&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">are</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;the stud</span><span lang="EN-US">ies</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;of “Polish philosophy” and “philosophy in Poland” not mutually</span><span lang="UK">exclusive, but, on the contrary, complementary genres of historiography of national philosophy? (2) how</span><span lang="EN-US">to</span><span lang="UK">distinguish&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">in the&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">analy</span><span lang="EN-US">sis</span><span lang="EN-US">of&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">the reception of a certain philosophical doctrine in national philosophy things&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">pertaining</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;to the history of this philosophy as a whole, from things&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">pertaining</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;to the history of development of the doctrine itself?</span></p> Sergii Rudenko, Serhii Yosypenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Reply to the Paper “National Philosophy as a Subject of Comparative Research” <p>The paper aims to clarify and develop some of the issues raised by S. Rudenko &amp; S. Yosypenko who reviewed the author’s book <em>Selected Issues in the History of Polish Philosophy</em>. It focuses mostly on methodological questions in the historiography of national philosophies, and on interdisciplinary approach which is presented as useful and fruitful for researching less influential philosophical traditions.</p> Tomasz Mróz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationship between the Notions of the Substantial Union and the Interaction of Soul and Body in Descartes’ Philosophy <p>The author argues for the reductive interpretation of Descartes’ notion of the substantial union of soul and body, according to which the union is reduced to causal interactions. The opponents countered the reductive approach with the claims that Descartes (1) attributed sensations to the union rather than the soul; (2) held that the soul is the substantial form of the body; (3) identified some special conditions of the human body’s self-identity. In the article, the case is made that (a) these claims lack clear textual evidence: if their context is properly considered, Descartes’ corresponding statements are consistent with the reductive interpretation; (b) they do not give proper weight to other Descartes’ statements (in particular, his numerous unambiguous statements that sensations are the soul’s states). The author argues that the reductive interpretation is consistent with other Descartes’ statements to which its opponents appeal - that sensations arise from the union of mind and body and that the causal interactions between the soul and the body are explained with the reference to their union. The consistency is achieved if we interpret these statements in the sense that the enduring union between a soul and a body is an ontological prerequisite and, hence, an explanation, of all interactions between the soul and the body and their effects (such as sensations): these interactions and effects would not take place without the union between this particular soul and this particular body. Such explanation is similar to the explanation of certain natural events by the laws of nature: just as the gist of a law of nature can be reduced to a set of causal dispositions, so the content of the notion of the union can be reduced to the emergence and maintenance of a set of causal dispositions between a certain soul and a certain body.</p> Dmytro Sepetyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Biographical encyclopedia (dictionary) as a genre of the contemporary historiography of philosophy: Anglo-American and Ukrainian experience <p>The article aims at clarifying the historical status and cognitive potentials of such a genre of contemporary historiography of philosophy as biographical encyclopedia (dictionary). Based on extensive bibliographic material, the author demonstrates that in the late XX – early XXI centuries in the English-speaking countries there was a real outbreak of interest in encyclopedias and dictionaries, compiled from personalized articles about the life and works of philosophers of certain epochs, countries, trends, etc. According to the author, the increasing popularity of this genre can be considered as a logical continuation of the historical and biographical turns that took place in the Anglo-American (analytic) philosophy in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The author specifically emphasizes that it caused the appearance of a significant number of encyclopedias and dictionaries, which contain the well-known facts as well as the significant elements of scholar novelty. The article also shows that similar tendencies have taken place in the contemporary Ukrainian historiography of philosophy. It is shown that Ukrainian experts also made their own significant contribution to the development of this genre. They have successfully developed a special approach, which presupposes the focus on life and works of the representatives of a particular academic institution. The intellectual value of this approach is demonstrated by the example of the recently published two-volume encyclopedia “Kyiv Theological Academy in Names: 1819-1924”. It contains a systematic and very informative presentation of the biographies of many representatives of the national philosophy, whose activities were associated with this institution. The author also shows that from the perspective of the historiography of philosophy, the general methodological foundations of this encyclopedic research is a matter of special interest.</p> Vadim Menzhulin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Philosophy of Laugh and Humor in the Modern Historical-philosophical Discourse <p>Rewiev of Amir, L. (2014). &nbsp;Humor and the Good Life in Modern Philosophy: Shaftesbury, Hamann, Kierkegaard. Albany: State University of New York Press.</p> Maryna Stoliar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Philological Culture and the Humanities. Reflections on the Book: Zvonska, L. L. et al. (Eds.). (2017). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Classical Languages. Kyiv: Kyiv University <p>Review of the book Zvonska, L. L. et al. (Eds.). (2017). <em>Encyclopedic Dictionary of Classical Languages</em>. Kyiv: Kyiv University.</p> Evgen Scopov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Ukrainian Philosophy on the Fracture of Epoch (Conversation with Ksenia Zborovska, Gennady Zinchenko and Sophia Dmitrenko) <p>Interview with Yaroslava Stratii, dedicated to the history of studies of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy’s manuscript inheritance (17-18th century) in Kiyv and Lviv from 1968. The interview was prepared by the activists of the Student Society of Oral History of Philosophy, organized at the Department of the History of Philosophy (Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv).</p> Yaroslava Stratii, Xenija Zborovska, Gennadii Zinchenko, Sofiia Dmytrenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 "Learn to philosophize": the Role of the History of Philosophy and Argumentation Theory in the Reform of Philosophical Education <p>The author proves the crucial role of the&nbsp;reform of philosophical&nbsp;education in the context of the socio-economic crisis. Without this reform, it is impossible to form a new mentality. Respectively, without changing the mentality, other reforms are not possible. Criticizing the Soviet command-and-control system, the author argues that its system remains in the very structure of Ukrainian universities. The reform of philosophical education, according to the author, should lie (1) in the democratization of the educational process and (2) in reorienting this process to develop the ability to philosophize. This goal assumes that the basis of philosophical education should be such disciplines as the history of philosophy and the argumentation theory because they provide an understanding of philosophical problems and teach how to think critically and creatively.</p> Sergiy Secundant ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300