Sententiae <p>Journal created by Modern philosophy's research group (Pascalian society).<br>Founded in 2000. Published twice a year, in June and December.<br>Journal DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Vinnytsia National Technical University en-US Sententiae 2075-6461 <div class="copyright_notice&quot;"><br> <ul>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</li> </ul> </div> The Problem of Infinity in Kyiv-Mohylian Philosophical Courses (the 17th– 18th centuries): A Preliminary Study <p>The article analyses the explication of the infinity in the philosophical courses taught at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy at the 17<sup>th</sup> and 18<sup>th</sup> centuries. It examines 12 philosophical courses – since 1645 (the course by Inokentii Gizel) until 1751 (the course by Georgii Konyskyi). It shows how the infinity was defined and in which kinds it was divided in different courses. In general, all the professors, as well as other scholastic philosophers, agree that categorematic infinity exists only in God, but syncategorematic is present in the created world. Regarding the question whether God, being omnipotent, can create a categorematic infinity in the world, the Mogilyans are divided into several camps: (1) Inokentii Gizel, Stefan Yavorskyi, Inokentii Popovskyi, Sylvestr Pinovskyi, Platon Malynovskyi gave a positive answer to the question; (2) Yosyf Volchanskyi, Ilarion Levytskyi, Amvrosii Dubnevych, Sylvestr Kulabka believed that this kind of infinity is in principle impossible, hence God cannot create it; (3) Teofan Prokopovych and Georgii Konyskyi took a sceptical stand and consider that the human mind as such could not solve this problem. The article analyses which arguments were offered by each camp, and gives suggestions what influenced the position of certain Mohylian professors. Most probably, Mohylian philosophers who supported the possibility of actual infinity in the created world were influenced by nominalistically oriented Jesuit philosophers, like Pedro Hurtando de Mendoza and Rodrigo Arriaga. The other Mohylians backed a more traditional idea, supported by Thomas Aquinas, that only one actual infinity can exist and it is God.</p> Mykola Symchych ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 6 19 10.22240/sent37.02.006 Comparative Analysis of Theophan Prokopovych’s and Georgii Konyskyi’s Philosophy of Mind <p>The article compares selected chapters devoted the problems of mind (<em>anima</em>) from two philosophical courses by Georgii Konyskyi, taught at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy in 1747-1749 and 1749-1751 academic years. As Konyskyi taught his first course using verbatim Teofan Prokopovych’s philosophical course of 1706-08 academic years, the article compares the doctrines on mind by these two Mohylian authors. It also shows the evolution of Konyskyi’s views.</p> <p>There are common elements between the philosophy of mind of Prokopovych and Konyskyi: their interpretations of Aristotle’s definition of the soul; the scholastic concept of the man as an integral mind-body entity; the problem of the unity and multiplicity of forms. It is shown that Prokopovych and Konsyskyi understood the three-level structure of a human soul in the same way as Francisco Suarez and Rodrigo de Arriaga.</p> <p>However, there are some differences between these two Mohylian professors. They interpreted differently sensitive and intellectual cognition. Prokopovych upholds the scholastic doctrine of <em>species</em>. Konyskyi, in his second course, abandons this doctrine and defends the doctrine of <em>impressiones</em>. They are developed by the <em>phantasmata</em> – not received from objects. The impressions are modifications of animal spirits by direct or indirect impact of objects on senses of a human being or any other animated being. In the doctrine on intellectual powers, Prokopovych upholds the scholastic distinction between active and passive intellect. Konyskyirejects this common for scholastic tradition distinction and considers that passive intellect can do full-scale intellectual activity. The influence of Early Modern philosophy, especially Cartesianism, was the reason why Konyskyi changed his position.</p> Yaroslava Stratii ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 20 48 10.22240/sent37.02.020 Discussion Topics in the History of the Development of Immanuel Kant’s Third «Critique» <p>This paper deals with the so-called “external history” of the origin of <em>Critique of the power of judgment</em> that is based primarily on the philosopher’s correspondence in the period between May 1787 and October 1789. Two letters from Kant to Reinhold (28.12.1787 and 12.05.1789) as well as modifications in the interpretation of the term “aesthetics” in the first <em>Critique</em> (KrVA 22, B 35-36) are crucial for the evolution of the project Critique of Taste in the book <em>Critique of the Power of Judgment</em>. Special attention was paid to the debate between some modern scholars and editors about the importance of the reports on ‘Grundlegung’ / ‘Grundlage’ of Critique of Taste in the initial phase of work on the text. However, the available evidence does not allow us to reconstruct the “internal history” of the development of Kant’s thought during the period of writing the third <em>Critique</em>. Some modern scholars try to establish other objective criteria for this kind of reconstruction by identification in the text of <em>Critique</em> direct or hidden hints or citations to the literature of the 18th century. The author considers that the use of so-called “reflections” from the philosopher’s manuscript heritage, which can be seen as the formation and development of certain concepts of Kant’s theory, can be fruitful. The well-known problem of dating the reflections can be partially solved if <em>terminus a quo</em> will be not the published works, but Kant’s lectures on anthropology and logic taught at that time.</p> Vitali Terletsky ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 49 61 10.22240/sent37.02.049 Wilhelm Windelband: The History of Philosophy as Organon and as Integral Part of Philosophy <p>The article analyzes Wilhelm Windelband’s views on the problem of the relation of philosophy to its history. Windelband’s essay “History of philosophy” (1905) is put as a starting point. The main motive for this research is the idea that the history of philosophy is an <em>organon</em> and a component of philosophy. The article critically examines Windelband’s interpretation of (1) Hegel’s conception of the history of philosophy, (2) the question about the grounds of philosophers’ interest in the history of philosophy, (3) the problem of development of the history of philosophy as a science (Wissenschaft). The author assesses Windelband’s role in the development of the history of philosophy as a science is important, despite some accusations of partisanship. The main merit of Windelband, according to the author, is (1) a critique of Psychologism and Historical Relativism and (2) the justification of the history of philosophy’s main role in education as a whole and in the philosophical education in particular.</p> Sergii Secundant ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 62 92 10.22240/sent37.02.062 “Clarification” vs. “explanation”: Wittgenstein’s philosophical reflections on the human nature (French perspective) <p>The author disagrees with reductionist attitude to Wittgenstein’s philosophy as philosophy of language. Basing on researches in contemporary French philosophy, the author reveals anthropological dimension of Wittgenstein’s reflections both in the main themes of his philosophizing and in his philosophical method as such. &nbsp;Wittgenstein strives to clarify what we already know, trying&nbsp; to avoid explanation, generalization and uniformity. The research shows that <em>clarification, </em><em>übersichtliche Darstellung </em>acquires in anthropology special meaning of <em>description</em> and helps to overcome explicative anthropological approach &nbsp;and description of human action in terms of binary oppositions of nature/culture and instrumentality/rituality. The article shows practical results of &nbsp;“grammatical analysis” applied to the concepts of humanity, speech and thinking: this analysis discovers circularity of theoretical definitions of human being and opens the way of “immediate understanding” of humanity prior to any theoretical thinking. The article shows the role of Wittgenstein’s concepts of “ritual instinct” and “ceremonial animal”, which help to understand human activity as manifestations of “ritual instinct”, and ritual action as inseparable unity of natural reactions and conscious intentionality despite the debates between intellectualism and expressivism.</p> Oxana Yosypenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 93 107 10.22240/sent37.02.093 Plato. Cratylus (427d-435е) <p>Translation from ancient Greek was made by Pavlo Sodomora; original text:&nbsp; &nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Plato (428/427 or 424/423 - 348/347 BC) ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 108 140 10.22240/sent37.02.108 Theophan Prokopovych. Physicae Scientiae <p>Translation into Ukrainian of several sections of the still unknown books of "Physics" by Teofan Prokopovich, who entered the course of Georgian Konissky's lectures and devoted to consideration of mind&nbsp;problem. The publication was prepared by Yaroslava Stratii.</p> Theophan Prokopovych ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 141 158 10.22240/sent37.02.141 Language as a Way to Cognition (Plato’s “Cratylus” in Ukrainian Translation) <p>The translator of the first Ukrainian version of Plato’s <em>Cratylus</em> (see above, p. ..) indicates the difficulties in translating the dialogue, emphasizing the external and internal aspects of those difficulties. The external aspect consists in the different etymology of Greek and Ukrainian words, and the internal one lays in the problem of choice between “Latinization” and “Ukrainization” of the translated text. The author made one of his translation principles to avoid excessive Latinization and justifies his decision.</p> Pavlo Sodomora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 159 164 10.22240/sent37.02.159 Moses Mendelssohn and Formation of Jewish Culture in the Time of Enlightenment: Political and Language Aspects <p>The review demonstrates that there are four main historiographical approaches to explanation of the role of Mendelssohn’s philosophy in the emergence of the Haskalah project: (1) traditional approach (created by the Jewish historiography in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century; it stressed secular&nbsp; and culture-centered character of Haskalah, making it closer to German intellectual tradition); (2) social historiography (it treated Haskalah as a consequence of and reaction to the processes of global social and political modernization); (3) the approach practiced by researchers of early Jewish proponents of Enlightenment’s (determination of the intellectual foundations of Haskalah in the early <em>Maskilim</em> projects); (4) the researches of Mendelssohn's Jewish texts, the concept of “Political Theology”, and&nbsp; the interpretation of Mendelssohn’s ideas in the works of Leo Strauss (new interpretation of the role of Mendelssohn in the creation of Haskalah).</p> Igor Kaufman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 165 182 10.22240/sent37.02.165 Hryhorii Skovoroda: Poetic Biography of the Philosopher in the Spiritual Spaces of Ukraine and Europe <p>Review of the book: Ushkalov, L. (2017). The catch of an unprotected bird: the life of Hryhorii Skovoroda. K .: Spirit and letter.</p> <p>&nbsp;The review is devoted to the analysis of a new book by Leonid Ushkalov in which the life and work of Hryhorii Skovoroda are presented in the genre of a philosophical and poetic portrait on the background of Ukraine and Europe of the XVIII century.</p> Olena Sirtsova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 183 185 10.22240/sent37.02.183 Philosophy as a School of Life at the Time of Totalitarianism. Part I. Thinking in the Space of Soviet Myths. (Conversation with Xenija Zborovska, Ruslan Mironenko, Olena Kostenko and Mykola Shulha) <p>Interview with Doctor of Sciences in Philosophy Serhiy Proleev, devoted to phenomenon of "philosophy in the USSR".</p> Serhiy Proleyev Xenija Zborovska Ruslan Mironenko Olena Kostenko Mykola Shulha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 37 2 186 205 10.22240/sent37.02.186