Sententiae 2020-09-07T16:24:37+03:00 Oleg Khoma Open Journal Systems <p>Journal created by Modern philosophy's research group (Pascalian society).<br>Founded in 2000. Published twice a year, in June and December.<br>Journal DOI: <a href=""></a></p> At the beginning of the second twenty years 2020-06-30T15:53:50+03:00 Oleg Khoma <p>Foreword of Editor-in-Chief.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative analysis of the Leibniz’s and Wolff’s concepts of system 2020-07-01T02:43:15+03:00 Sergii Secundant <p>If Wolff from the very beginning was strongly influenced by Cartesianism, and his concept of system was guided by the geometric model of scientific method, Leibniz relies on the German tradition of “methodological thinking”, originated by Joachim Jung. Leibniz’s conception of system focuses mainly on algebraic analysis. The application of the term “system” mainly to metaphysics can be explained by the fact that it is this science that deals with synthetic principles and is designed to develop a rational view of the world. Based on the idea of “real metaphysics”, Leibniz justifies these principles as such that make possible the laws of physics and rational discourse in general. Leibniz does not provide a system of philosophy in the sense of traditional school philosophy. He considers metaphysics as the most consistent expression of a systematic mind and indicates heuristic principles for the construction and improvement of reasonable hypotheses.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Kant’s Theory of Genius: Some Questions of Sources Reconstruction 2020-06-30T16:33:09+03:00 Vitali Terletsky <p>The article deals with Kant’s doctrine of genius, presented in the&nbsp;<em>Critique of the Power of Judgment</em>, in connection with the latest discussion of which author of that time could have a decisive influence on Kant’s conception. In the first section, I reconstruct the line of Kant’s argument in CPJ §§ 46-50 where he explicates the nature of genius and show that its characteristics such as contrast to rules, the complementarity of taste, spirit as a principle of aesthetic ideas, the proportion between the power of imagination and understanding become constitutive for his theory. In the second section, I refer to opinio communis in the research literature that Kant formed his theory of genius under the influence of the Scottish philosopher Alexander Gerard’s&nbsp;<em>Essay on Genius</em>&nbsp;(1774). This opinion is shared by the vast majority of contemporary researchers (P. Giordanetti, J. Zammito, M. Kuehn, P. Guyer, and others). Still, its origins go back to the monograph of O. Schlapp (1901). At the same time, other researchers (M. Frank, V. Zanetti) claim that C. F. Gellert, or merely German philosophy of the XVIII century, had a significant influence on Kant’s theory (A. Bauemler). In the third section, on the example of Kant’s four propositions about genius (the contrast of genius and the (great) head, the productive power of imagination, the proportion of understanding and the power of imagination, the difference of genius and scientific talent), I claim that similar views were common among various German and foreign authors of that time. Based on this, I argue that Kant’s conception of genius as a complex theory cannot be reduced to the influence of one author or one tradition. Hence its correct reconstruction should consider the rich and diverse material from different sources from aesthetics, poetics, rhetoric, art, and literature up to metaphysics.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Jan Śniadecki’s Philosophical Interpretations of the Concepts Explaining Beauty and Art 2020-06-30T16:46:13+03:00 Ruta Marija Vabalaite <p>Analysing Śniadecki’s articles and chapters from his “Philosophy of Human Mind” dealing with the problems of aesthetic taste, style, wit, imagination and essence of beauty, we question a view of Śniadecki as a dogmatic proponent of Classicism and an enemy to Romanticism, which, in our view, is based on in-depth studies of his most famous nevertheless only one article “On Classical and Romantic Writings”. We suppose that French aesthetics is not the exclusive keystone of Śniadecki’s ideas. Therefore, we examine the peculiarities of his thought in the context of their relationship with the ideas by philosophers of the Scottish school of common sense and argue that these are close. His descriptions of taste and style, of the roles of imagination and sensory expressions are similar to Reid's and Stewart's ones. We show that Śniadecki strives to substantiate the objectivist view of aesthetics and rationally explain the essence of beauty and art, but, by surprise, his thought about the relationship between genius and rules is recalling Kantian view. Our conclusion is that Sniadecki's ideas might be attributed to at least neo-Classical, or even to pre-Romanticist period.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quasi-Transcentental Universality in Philosophical Discourse of Jacques Derrida 2020-06-30T16:58:59+03:00 Anna Illyina <p>The article is devoted to historico-philosophical investigation of the grounds of universalism of special type. This universalism, inherent in transcendental thinking, was radicalized in quasi-transcendental discourse of Jacques Derrida. It is established that explicit critique of universalism in deconstructive philosophy is aimed at “logo-centric” paradigm of universality which is questioned by (quasi)transcendental philosophy.</p> <p>Constitutive function of difference and otherness in establishment of transcendental and especially quasi-transcendental universality was brought to light. It was shown that in (quasi)transcendental discourse singularity is involved into the sphere of universal, whereas “dogmatic” universalism brought singularity and/or particularity outside, thus questioning its own claims. Tracing transcendentalist tendency to balance status and significance of universal and particular (singular), the author concludes that relation between them makes possible constituting hyper-universality of special type.</p> <p>Universal implications of the Derrida’s notion “quasi-transcendental” are defined. It was determined that one of the main factors constituting universalism of quasi-transcendental type is the deconstruction of binary thinking, accomplished first of all with the help of principles: <em>differ</em><em>a</em><em>nce</em>, insolvability (aporia) and trace. Among them insolvability implies universality revealing the overlap and mutual conditioning of alternative (at a glance) elements. Instead, the trace conditions superiority of logo-centric alternatives “primary-secondary” and “presence-absence”.</p> 2020-06-25T14:15:10+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vocabulary that philosophizes 2020-08-02T16:21:28+03:00 Anatoly Akhutin <p>The philosophical meaning of the “Vocabulaire européen des philosophies: Dictionnaire des intraduisibles” consists not only in its virtues as a dictionary of a new type. We show that this “Lexicon of Untranslatabilities” is an original work of contemporary philosophizing. This edition is fundamentally teamwork, uncompletable, growing, branching. The main features of the Dictionary as a philosophical work are as follows: (1) It is an interactive hypertext that creates new texts; (2) It is a collection not of words, but of “events of naming one’s thought.”</p> <p>Untranslatable multilingualism of these terms involves the reader into a thought that is not closed in terms, not grasped by the mono-logos, unremovable. This situation every time in a new way problematizes the relationship between word, concept, thinking and that which is.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In Universam Philosophiam Prooemium 2020-06-30T15:58:26+03:00 Theophan Prokopovych <p>Prokopovych’s philosophical course is distinguishable by its content from other philosophical courses taught at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Now we are publishing a previously unknown, but philosophically significant part of the course – <em>Prooemium</em> (the Introduction). The publication is based on the manuscript from the Russian National Library (St. Petersburg). The text deals with the nature of philosophy (its definition, division and goal), but outlines the method and structure of the course as well. These questions are important as they shed light on the most general philosophical beliefs of the future Church hierarch and reformer. Prokopovych’s “Prooemium” was compared with the relevant part of Georgiy Konyskyi’s philosophical course. The texts turned out to be almost identical, what affirms that Konyskyi used Prokopovych’s text. All the variations between the manuscripts are indicated in the critical apparatus.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Remarks about the edition of the “Introduction” to the philosophical course by Theophan Prokopovich 2020-08-02T13:08:43+03:00 Mykola Symchych <p>The article supplements the publication of the introduction to Theophan Prokopovych’s philosophical course (taught at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy in 1707-09). It analyses characteristics of Prokopovych’s manuscript in comparison with the manuscript of Georgiy Konyskyi’s philosophical course (taught in 1747-1749). The latter turns out to be a copy of the former, as it does not contain significant differences. The article describes the editorial principles of Prokopovych’s <em>Prooemium</em> and the significance of the text as well as gives short exposition of the content with the analysis of references by Prokopovych. It explains some codicological and textological characteristics of both manuscripts. The analysis of textual relation between the two manuscripts shows that Konyskyi’s manuscript contains much more mistakes than Prokopovych’s manuscript. Most of more than a hundred variations between the manuscripts are mistakes in Konyskyi’s manuscript. The author supposes that the student, the scribe of Konyskyi’s manuscript, not completely understood rather complicated style of Prokopovych. Prokopovych’s position about the style of exposition shows balancing between humanistic and scholastic ideas. It states that Prokopovych refers usually to ancient authors. The references in the text are quite detailed, but not enough accurate. Half of them (6 out of 12) happen to be incorrect. It is probable that Prokopovych made references from memory.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Deleuze and Guattari: Freedom’s Refrains. Olkowski, D., & Pirovolakis, E. (Ed.). (2019). Deleuze and Guattari’s Philosophy of Freedom. Freedom’s Refrains. New York: Routledge. 2020-06-30T16:00:01+03:00 Pavlo Bartusiak <p>Review of Olkowski, D., &amp; Pirovolakis, E. (Ed.). (2019). <em>Deleuze and Guattari’s Philosophy of Freedom. Freedom’s Refrains</em>. New York: Routledge.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## New Philosophical Biography of Søren Kierkegaard. Carlisle, C. (2019). Philosopher of the Heart. The Restless Life of Søren Kierkegaard. London: Allen Lane. 2020-06-30T17:37:57+03:00 Andriy Dakhniy <p>Review of Carlisle, C. (2019). Philosopher of the Heart. The Restless Life of Søren Kierkegaard. London: Allen Lane.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Philosophy of the Indian Renaissance. Bhushan, N., & Garfield, J. L. (2017). Minds Without Fear: Philosophy in the Indian Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2020-06-30T16:01:31+03:00 Olexandr Kornienko <p>Review of&nbsp;Bhushan, N., &amp; Garfield, J. L. (2017). Minds Without Fear: Philosophy in the Indian Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wittgenstein's method and contemporary studies of the history of analytical philosophy. Kuusela, O. (2019). Wittgenstein on Logic as the Method of Philosophy. Re-examining the Roots and Development of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP. 2020-06-30T17:41:05+03:00 Anna Laktionova <p>Review of Kuusela, O. (2019). <em>Wittgenstein on Logic as the Method of Philosophy. Re-examining the Roots and Development of Analytic Philosophy</em>. Oxford: Oxford UP.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Philosophical performance of Serhiy Kryms’kyi. Kryms’kyi, S. (2019). Selected works in 4 books. (T. Lyuty, Ed.). Kyiv: Alpha-PIC. 2020-06-30T16:02:56+03:00 Taras Lyuty <p>Review of&nbsp;Kryms’kyi, S. (2019). <em>Selected works in 4 books. Compiled and edited by Taras Lyuty. Book. 1: Lectures. Articles. Interview; Book. 2: Logic. Methodology. Science; Book. 3: Knowledge. Spirituality. Culture; Book. 4: Man. Sophia. History.</em> (T. Lyuty, Ed.). Kyiv: Alpha-PIC.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Revisionist-contextual reconstruction Marquis de Sade’s Philosophical “System”. Lloyd, H. M. (2019). Sade’s Philosophical System in its Enlightenment Context. Cham: Springer Nature; Palgrave Macmillan. 2020-08-10T19:24:12+03:00 Oleh Perepelytsia <p>The review identifies the components of H. M. Lloyd’s contextual intellectual reconstruction of Marquis de Sade’s philosophical system in the context of the Enlightenment. The fundamental importance of the Enlightenment discourse of sensibility, its influence on the theory of natural law and moral philosophy of the eighteenth century is established. The main stages of reconstruction of Sade’s “system” are demonstrated, namely: 1) philosophical context (ontology and epistemology) as a discourse of sensibility; 2) particularities of the “roman philosophique” as a genre; 3) the moral philosophy of the era and the Sade's response to it; 4) Sade’s theories of corporeal sensibility and affective self-cultivation, that isits philosophical askesis; 5) understanding of Sade in the context of the development of contemporary philosophy. It is noted that such reconstruction problematizes of the formal and substantive components of philosophical discourse in the academic environment.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metaphysics of laughter in Nineteenth-century philosophical discourse. Moland, L. (Ed.). (2018). All Too Human. Laughter, Humor, and Comedy in Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. Boston: Springer. 2020-06-30T17:46:32+03:00 Maryna Stoliar <p>Review of Moland, L. (Ed.). (2018). <em>All Too Human. Laughter, Humor, and Comedy in Nineteenth-Century Philosophy</em>. Boston: Springer.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A New Outlook on the Birth of Philosophy in Greece and India. Seaford, R. (2020). The Origins of Philosophy in Ancient Greece and Ancient India. A Historical Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2020-08-05T00:25:37+03:00 Sergii Shevtsov <p>The article provides a brief description of the main theses of Richard Seaford's new book. I criticize some of these theses. In particular, there are doubts that the common characteristics and chronological proximity of the origin of philosophy in ancient Greece and India can be explained by the common process of growth of money circulation in these cultures.</p> <p>I argue that Seaford de facto uses monetization as a metaphysical category. It is very similar to the Marxist use of the concept of labor. To my mind, the interiorization and the cosmic projection are the main processes of transition between real human actions and their metaphysical perception. The universalization of these processes gives them an ability to transform any phenomena of the external world into mental ones and vice versa, which makes Seaford's arguments excessively reductionist.</p> <p>Another weakness of Seford's book is the fact that Greek and Indian philosophies are considered in a too general way, in the style of a textbook rather than a research work.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reactualizing Hegel: the progress of modern Hegelian studies. Bykova, M. et al. (2019). Hegel’s Philosophy of Spirit: a critical guide. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 2020-06-30T16:05:50+03:00 Illia Davidenko <p>Review of Bykova, M. et al. (2019). <em>Hegel’s Philosophy of Spirit: a critical guide. </em>Cambridge: Cambridge UP.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evil in modern philosophical optics. Nys, T., & Wijze, S. de. (2019). The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Evil. London, & New York : Routledge. 2020-08-18T00:45:00+03:00 Sofiia Dmytrenko <p>Review of Nys, T., &amp; Wijze, S. de. (2019). <em>The</em> <em>Routledge</em> <em>Handbook</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>Philosophy</em> <em>of</em> <em>Evil</em>. London, &amp; New York: Routledge.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Philosophy, terror, choice. Bloch, O. (Ed.). (2009). Philosopher en France sous l’Occupation. Paris: Éditions de la Sorbonne. 2020-09-07T16:24:37+03:00 Olha Simoroz <p>Review of Bloch, O. (Ed.). (2009). <em>Philosopher en France sous l’Occupation</em>. Paris: Éditions de la Sorbonne.</p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##