Sententiae 2020-12-29T06:10:55+02:00 Oleg Khoma Open Journal Systems <p>Journal created by Modern philosophy's research group (Pascalian society).<br>Founded in 2000. Published twice a year, in June and December.<br>Journal DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Local Contexts of Global Philosophies 2020-12-24T14:14:21+02:00 Serhii Yosypenko Oleg Khoma <p>Foreword of Editorial Board.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A system of methodological coordinates for a historiographer of medieval philosophy: a proposal of an explanatory tool 2020-12-24T10:14:20+02:00 Rostislav Tkachenko <p>The last thirty years of scholarship in western medieval philosophical historiography have seen a number of reflections on the methodological paradigms, schools, trends, and dominant approaches in the field. As a contribution to this ongoing assessment of the existing methods of studies in medieval philosophy and theology and a supplement to classifications offered by M. Colish, J. Inglis, C. König-Pralong, J. Marenbon, A. de Libera, and others, the article offers another explanatory tool.</p> <p>Here is a description of an imaginary system of methodological coordinates that systematizes the current tendencies by placing them in a three-dimensional system of axes. Every axis corresponds to a certain aspect of the historical and systematic research in medieval thought and symbolizes a possible movement between two extremes representing opposite methodological values and directions. The methods and approaches practiced in recent studies in medieval philosophy and theology might be schematically located inside this general system of argumentational, focal (or objectival), and (con)textual axes with their intersection identified with what some scholars call the “integral” model of study.</p> <p>This explanatory tool allows one to see how current approaches and methods form a panoply of axes that belong together in one complex grid and helps to visualize the tapestry of existing approaches in medieval philosophical historiography.</p> 2020-12-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Edwards on the Incompatibility of Divine Foreknowledge and Human Free Will 2020-12-24T10:14:57+02:00 Oleh Bondar <p>In the book “Freedom of the Will”, Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) put forward a strong argument for theological fatalism. This argument, I suppose, can be considered as the universal basis for discussion between Fatalists and Anti-Fatalists in the 20<sup>th </sup>century, especially in the context of the most powerful argument for fatalism, introduced by Nelson Pike.</p> <p>The argument of Edwards rests upon the following principles: (a) if something has been the case in the past, it has been the case necessarily (Necessity of the past); (b) if God knows something (say A), it is not the case that ~A is possible (Infallibility of God`s knowledge). Hence, Edwards infers that if God had foreknowledge that A, then A is necessary, and it is not the case that someone could voluntarily choose ~A. The article argues that (i) the Edwards` inference&nbsp; Kgp → □p rests upon the modal fallacy; (ii) the inference „God had a knowledge that p will happen, therefore „God had a knowledge that p will happen” is the proposition about the past, and hence, the necessarily true proposition“ is ambiguous; thus, it is not the case that this proposition necessarily entails the impossibility of ~p; (iii) it is not the case that p, being known by God, turns out to be necessary.</p> <p>Thus, we can avoid the inference of Edwards that if Kgp is a fact of the past, then we cannot freely choose ~p. It has also been shown that the main provisions of the argument of Edwards remain significant in the context of contemporary debates about free will and foreknowledge (Theories of soft facts, Anti-Ockhamism, theories of temporal modal asymmetry, „Timeless solution”). Additionally, I introduce a new challenge for fatalism – argument from Brouwerian axiom.</p> 2020-12-12T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The concepts “spravedlyvist” and “pravda” in Ukrainian legal texts of the second half of the 16th–the first half of the 17th century) 2020-12-28T12:05:57+02:00 Larysa Dovga <p>The paper studies the vocabulary the Ukrainian intellectuals of the second half of the 16<sup>th</sup>–the early 17<sup>th</sup> century used to signify a number of moral, ethical, and legal concepts. The first part of the article examines legal documents, including the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1588) and several court documents.</p> <p>The author comes to the following conclusions: (1) the lexeme “justice” is consistently used in legal documents written in Old Ukrainian (Old Belarusian) to denote practices related to litigation and acquires clear features of a legal concept which corresponds to the Latin <em>iustitio</em>;&nbsp;(2) the study of the aforementioned texts shows that the semantic field of the lexeme “justice” does not include any reference to moral and ethical norms and principles which is customary in modern language. Instead, semantic fields of both old and modern concepts of “justice” intersect in the fact that now, like in the early modern times, it means impartial attitude towards someone and a set of actions that comply with legal norms; (3) the lexemes “fairly/justly”, “truly”, and “true” have rather vague semantic fields that often overlap, while the adverbs “fairly/justly” and “truly” often function as synonyms;&nbsp;(4) the use of lexemes “fairly/justly”, “truly”, and “true” is neither consistent nor structured. They belong to the sphere of everyday speech and cannot claim to belong to the conceptual apparatus;&nbsp;(5) the lexemes “truth”, “righteousness”, and “verity” are almost never used in the legal domain of that time.</p> <p>Although the field of jurisprudence included the concepts that were very important for the communicational sphere in early modern Ukrainian society, it could not cover all its needs.</p> 2020-12-12T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “Philosopher” and “Philosophy” in Kyivan Rus’ Written Sources of the 11th-14th centuries: Historiography of Conceptual Interpretations 2020-12-24T14:19:28+02:00 Olexandr Kyrychok <p>It remains largely unknown what was knowledge of philosophy by writers in Kyivan Rus’ of the 11<sup>th</sup> – 14<sup>th</sup> centuries. Moreover, there are no methodological foundations of resolving the issue. I suggest the key to the solution is the analysis of the meanings of words “philosophy” and “philosophers” in the texts of that time. This article aims to analyse how different <em>researchers interpreted</em> the meanings of these words in Kyivan Rus’ written sources of the 11<sup>th</sup> – 14<sup>th</sup> centuries. Use of the word “philosophy” was interpreted by the researchers in six different ways: (1) as an approximate synonym for the word “education” (which was for a long time a prevailing opinion), but also (2) as a pagan or (3) Christian wisdom, (4) as theology, (5) as an allegorical method of interpreting Scripture, and (6) as the knowledge of the nature of things. Some researchers emphasized one of the meanings, but others opted for a “pluralistic approach”, considering that Kyivan writers used the word in different meanings at the same time. The same is true about the word “philosopher”. It referred to an educated man, an ancient philosopher, a Christian thinker, a theologian etc. Another approach in the interpretation of these terms suggested Vilen Horskyi (1931-2007), distinguishing formal and essential properties of words “philosophy” and “philosopher”. He finds that the essential feature of philosophy was deification (theosis), a process whose aim is likeness to God, and cognition of God’s wisdom. Furthermore, according to Horskyi, in the philosopher the link between his knowledge and his action was inextricable.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Outlines on Pyrrhonism by Sextus Empiricus: paradigm of terms and translation intentions 2020-12-24T14:20:15+02:00 Lesia Zvonska <p>The article considers the principles underpinning the Ukrainian translation of Sextus Empiricus’ <em>Outlines of Pyrrhonism</em> and the translation strategy employed to render the fundamental concepts of his philosophy. The author believes that the translation should fully reproduce <em>Outlines of Pyrrhonism</em>’s rich word-forming terminological potential while preserving the internal form and etymological affinity of concepts. The basic principle is the unification of terms and key concepts. At the same time, an acceptable translation should adequately convey the original meaning of the text and not its letter. The accurate translation of the contents is more important than an effort to use the same Ukrainian word throughout the translation as an equivalent of a particular word in the original. Besides, our translation seeks to abide by a principle that one has to avoid, whenever possible, Grecisms, Latinisms, and loan translations from the Russian language. In accord with this translation strategy, the paper describes the lexical and semantic fields of the basic concepts of skepticism, their paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections, and the range of these terms’ derivation, and substantiates the choice of Ukrainian equivalents. The explanations are illustrated by fragments of the contextual translation of several cognate word forms. The translation should take into account the extensive synonymy present in the Greek text and certain lability of the terminological system used by Sextus himself. The translator’s intentions aim at conveying the rich lexical imagery and metaphors of the <em>Outlines of Pyrrhonism</em>.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Kant and the “awakening” from the rationalist principle of sufficient reason 2020-12-29T06:10:55+02:00 Victor Chorny <p>The paper inspects Anderson’s central thesis that Kant’s dogmatic slumber was interrupted by Hume’s critique of metaphysics (rational theology) in his <em>Enquiry concerning Human Understanding</em>, namely, by his critique of the rationalist principle of sufficient reason, which lies at the heart of dogmatic proofs of God’s existence. I recreate the meaning of “Hume’s objection,” define the larger role the principle of sufficient reason plays in Kant’s philosophy, and evaluate the explanatory potential of Anderson’s interpretation in view of Kant’s early and critical texts, as well as his other autobiographical statements (such as his famous letter to Garve). Although Anderson’s hypothesis seems well-founded and even explicates the hidden connection between the entire critical project and the refutation of Spinozism, I argue it is almost impossible to reconcile it with the current research in Kant’s Entwicklungsgeschichte.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Outlines of Pyrrhonism (I, 1-13) 2020-12-24T14:24:45+02:00 Sextus Empiricus <p>The first Ukrainian translation of the classic work of ancient skepticism, Sextus Empiricus’ <em>Outlines of Pyrrhonism&nbsp;</em>(I, 1-13), made by D. of Sc. in Philology Lesia Zvonska &nbsp;under the scientific editorship of Dr. of Sc. in Philosophy. Oleg Khoma</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## History and Psychology (1932) 2020-12-24T14:23:33+02:00 Max Horkheimer <p>&nbsp;The first Ukrainian translation of Max Horkheimer's texte "History and Psychology" (Geschichte und Psychologie, 1932), made by Vitaly Bryzhnik under the scientific and literary editorship of Ivan Ivashchenko.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Commentary on the Ukrainian translation of Sextus Empiricus' "Outlines on Pyrrhonism" (I, 1-13) 2020-12-24T14:26:03+02:00 Oleg Khoma <p>&nbsp;Some terms from <em>Outlines of Pyrrhonism</em> (I: 1-13) are problematic for Ukrainian translation. The commentary justifies the Ukrainian equivalents for those terms, in particular, "uyavlennia" for phantasia (not "vrazhennia"!), "pidvplyvnyi stan" for pathos (not "passion"!), "pomirnopidvplyvnist" for metriopatheia, "neosiagnennist" for akatalepsia,</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Commentary on the Ukrainian Translation of Max Horkheimer’s essay History and Psychology 2020-12-24T22:18:14+02:00 Vitalii Bryzhnik <p>The text comments and explains the Ukrainian translation of Max Gorkheimer's paper “History and Psychology” (1932).</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Philosophy as literature. Stocker, B., & Mack, M. (Eds.). (2018). The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Literature. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 2020-12-24T14:28:02+02:00 Liudmyla Kornienko <p>Review of Stocker, B., &amp; Mack, M. (Eds.). (2018). <em>The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Literature</em>. London: Palgrave Macmillan.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reception of Plato's philosophical heritage. Fine, G. (ed.). (2019). Тhe Oxford Handbook of Plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2020-12-24T14:29:06+02:00 Alisa Zviagina <p>Review of Fine G. (2019).<em>Тhe Oxford Handbook of Plato.</em>Oxford: Oxford University Press</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Philosophy of Inner Freedom. Long, A. A. (2018). How to be free. An Ancient Guide to the Stoic Life. Epictetus. Encheiridion and Selections from Discourses. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2020-12-24T14:30:13+02:00 Kseniia Myroshnyk <p>Review of Long, A. A. (2018). How to be free. An Ancient Guide to the Stoic Life. Epictetus. Encheiridion and Selections from Discourses. Princeton: Princeton University Press.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spinoza in the focus of national traditions. Stetter, J., & Ramond, C. (Eds.). (2019). Spinoza in 21st-century American and French philosophy: metaphysics, philosophy of mind, moral and political philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 2020-12-24T14:31:37+02:00 Oleg Khoma <p>Review of Stetter, J., &amp; Ramond, C. (Eds.). (2019). <em>Spinoza in 21st-century American and French philosophy: metaphysics, philosophy of mind, moral and political philosophy</em>. London: Bloomsbury Academic.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The historico-philosophical canon’s formation and the meaning of life problem. Hauskeller, M. (2019). The Meaning of Life and Death: Ten Classic Thinkers on the Ultimate Question. London, & New York, NY: Bloomsbury. 2020-12-24T14:32:45+02:00 Elvira Chukhray <p>Review of Hauskeller, M. (2019). The Meaning of Life and Death: Ten Classic Thinkers on the Ultimate Question. London, &amp; New York, NY: Bloomsbury.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## To know and to be 2020-12-24T14:34:57+02:00 Yevhen Bystrytsky Vsevolod Khoma Kseniia Myroshnyk Olha Simoroz <p>Interview of Vsevolod Khoma, Kseniia Myroshnyk and Olha Simoroz with&nbsp; Yevhen Bystrytsky.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "The saved and the lost." Attempt to recall on-line 2020-12-24T14:37:00+02:00 Natalia Viatkina Amina Kkhelufi Kseniia Myroshnyk Nataliia Reva <p>Interview of Amina Kkhelufi, Kseniia Myroshnyk, Nataliia Reva with Natalia Viatkina.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hegel and Ukrainian Philosophy of the 70-80th 2020-12-24T14:38:17+02:00 Viktor Kozlovskyi Illia Davidenko Kateryna Kruhlyk Daria Popil <p>Interview of Illia Davidenko, Kateryna Kruhlyk, Daria Popil with Viktor Kozlovskyi.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical Thinking of the Past and the Present 2020-12-24T14:39:17+02:00 Marta Gluchmanová <p>Report on the international conference <em>Ethical Thinking: Past and Present</em> entitled <em>Ethics in the 19th and 20th Centuries</em> (October 15-16, 2020, Prešov, Slovakia).</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##