“Clarification” vs. “explanation”: Wittgenstein’s philosophical reflections on the human nature (French perspective)
The author disagrees with reductionist attitude to Wittgenstein’s philosophy as philosophy of language. Basing on researches in contemporary French philosophy, the author reveals anthropological dimension of Wittgenstein’s reflections both in the main themes of his philosophizing and in his philosophical method as such. Wittgenstein strives to clarify what we already know, trying to avoid explanation, generalization and uniformity. The research shows that clarification, übersichtliche Darstellung acquires in anthropology special meaning of description and helps to overcome explicative anthropological approach and description of human action in terms of binary oppositions of nature/culture and instrumentality/rituality. The article shows practical results of “grammatical analysis” applied to the concepts of humanity, speech and thinking: this analysis discovers circularity of theoretical definitions of human being and opens the way of “immediate understanding” of humanity prior to any theoretical thinking. The article shows the role of Wittgenstein’s concepts of “ritual instinct” and “ceremonial animal”, which help to understand human activity as manifestations of “ritual instinct”, and ritual action as inseparable unity of natural reactions and conscious intentionality despite the debates between intellectualism and expressivism.
Beale, J., & Kidd, I. J. (Eds.). (2017). Wittgenstein and scientisme. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315276199
Bosa, B. (2015). C’est de famille! L’apport de Wittgenstein au travail conceptuel dans les siences sociales. Sociologie, I (vol. 6), 61-80. https://doi.org/10.3917/socio.061.066
Bouveresse, J. (2000). L’animal cérémonial. Wittgenstein et l’antropologie. In J. Bouveresse, Essais I. Wittgenstein, la modernité, le progrès et le declin (pp. 139-195). Marseille: Agone.
Chauviré, C. (2004). Le moment anthropologique de Wittgenstein. Paris: Kimé.
Chauviré, C. (2016). Anthropologie et Lumières. Wittgenstein et Blumenberg. Archives de philosophie, 79(1), 235-258. https://doi.org/10.3917/aphi.791.0135
Das, V. (1998). Wittgenstein and Anthropology. Annual Review of Antropology, 27, 171-195. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.27.1.171
Gálvez, J. P. (Ed.). (2010) Philosophical Antropology. Wittgenstein’s perspective. Frankfurt, Paris, Lancaster, New Brunswick: Ontes Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110321821
Gebauer, G. (2017). Wittgenstein’s antropological philosophy. London: Palgrave Macmill. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-5651-6
Hacker, P.M.S. (1992). Developmental Hypotheses and Perspicuous Representations: Wittgenstein on Frazer’s Golden Bough. Iyyun, The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly, 41, 277-299.
Hadot, P. (2001). La philosophie comme manière de vivre. Paris: Albin Michel.
Hadot, P. (2004). Wittgenstein et les limites du langage. Paris: Vrin.
Lara de, Ph. (2005a). Le rite et la raison. Wittgenstein antropologue. Paris: Ellipses.
Lara de, Ph. (2005b). L’expérience du langage. Wittgenstein philosophe de la subjectivité. Paris: Ellipses.
McWilliams, St. (2012). Magical Thinking. History, Possibility and the Idea of the Occult in Western Culture. London, New York: Continuum.
Wittgenstein, L. (1967). Bemerkungen über Frazers «The Golden Bough». Synthes, 17, 233-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00485029
Wittgenstein, L. (1995a). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. In L. Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Philosophical investigations. [In Ukrainian]. (pp. 5-86). Kiev: Osnovy.
Wittgenstein, L. (1995b). Philosophical investigations. In L. Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Philosophical investigations. [In Ukrainian]. (pp. 87-310). Kiev: Osnovy.
Wittgenstein, L. (2005). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Routlege: London, & New York.
Wittgenstein, L. (2009). Philosophical investigations. London: Wiley-Blackwell.
Wright, G. H. von. (1971). Explanation and Understanding. Ithaca: Cornell UP.
Yosypenko, O. (2012). From Language of Philosophy to Philosophy of Language. The Problem of Language in French Philosophy in the Seconde Half of 20th - beginning of 21th Century. [In Ukranian]. Kiev: UCDK.
Yosypenko, O. (2016). “Тhe Other” against “the Same”: Postmodern Interpretation and Historico-philosophical Commentation [In Ukrainian]. Sententiae, 34(1). 111-123. https://doi.org/10.22240/sent34.01.111
Abstract views: 225 PDF Downloads: 148
Copyright (c) 2018 Vinnytsia National Technical University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).