Silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect in the argumentation in John Locke's works
In the article, referring to the method of rational reconstruction described by R. Rorty, an analysis of some works of J. Locke has been made in order to identify new prospects in John Locke's philosophy researches. As a result, it’s been demonstrated the presence of silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect J. Locke’s research of realms of cognition, political philosophy and philosophy of education. This is not covered in modern John Locke's philosophy researches.
The authors emphasize that J. Locke, although not directly exploring silence as an argument, however, describes the argument ad ignorantiam, the wording of which in the work «An Essay Concerning Human Understanding» and his understanding of tacit consent in the work «Two Treatises of Government» are related to silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. The position that silence as an argument is present in all four arguments (argumentum ad verecundiam, argumentum ad ignorantiam, argumentum ad hominem, argumentum ad judicium) described by J. Locke is substantiated. Additionally, the argument ad ignorantiam can be considered both as an argument from silence (ex silentio argument) and as a kind of argument to silence. Considered arguments can serve as an argument to silence for the proponent and/or the third party, that is, anyone who is not directly involved in the dispute.
Basing on J. Locke's explanation of the characteristic feature of tacit consent, that is, the absence of the expressed consent/disagreement, the possibility of distinguishing the indirect connection between tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam is demonstrated, since both tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam in J. Locke's works rely on the absence of expressed statements on the consent or disagreement of the opponent. It is established that the ideas of the education of children described by J. Locke also correlate with silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect.
Applying the classification of the types of respect proposed by S. Hudson and complemented by R. Dillon to the use of the term «respect» to the various texts of J. Locke, it is substantiated that described by him respect covered almost all kinds of this classification.
Dillon, R.S. (2018, Feb. 18). Respect. Retrieved April 19, 2019 from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/respect/#KinRes
Duncan, M. (2012). The Curious Silence of the Dog and Paul of Tarsus: Revisiting The Argument from Silence. Informal Logic, Vol. 32, No. 1, 83-97. https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v32i1.3139
Eemeren, F.H., Grootendorst, R., & Snoeck Henkemans, A.F. (2002). Argumentation: analysis, evaluation, presentation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410602442
Giorgini, G., & Irrera, E. (Eds.). (2017). Roots of Respect. Berlin, & Boston: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110526288
Hamblin, Ch. L. (1970). Fallacies. London, Methuen.
Hinton, M. (2018). On Arguments from Ignorance. Informal Logic, 38(2), 184-212. https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v38i2.4697
Jolley, N. (2018). Locke and Malebranche: Intelligibility and Empiricism. In Ph. Hamon, & M. Pecharman (Eds.), Locke and Cartesian Philosophy (pp. 205-218). Oxford: Oxford UP.
Khatchadourian, H. (2015). How to Do Things with Silence. Berlin, & Boston: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501501449
Krabbe, E. C. W. (1995). Appeal to Ignorance. In H. V. Hansen, & R. C. Pinto (Eds.), Fallacies: Classical and Contemporary Readings. (pp. 251-264). University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State UP.
Kreider, A. (2016). Informal fallacies as abductive inferences. Logic And logical philosophy, 25: 73-82. https://doi.org/10.12775/LLP.2016.001
Lange, J. (1966). The Argument from Silence. History and Theory, 5(3), 288-301. https://doi.org/10.2307/2504447
Locke, J. (1824a). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In J. Locke, The Works in nine volumes (vol. II). London: Rivington.
Locke, J. (1824b). An examination of P. Malebranche's opinion of seeing all things in God. In J. Locke, The Works in nine volumes (vol. VIII). London: Rivington.
Locke, J. (1824c). Two Treatises of Government. In J. Locke, The Works in nine volumes (vol. IV). London: Rivington.
Locke, J. (1898). Some Thoughts Concerning Education. London: C. J. Clay and Sons; Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Locke, J. (2001). Two Treatises of Government. [In Ukrainian]. Kyiv: Osnovy.
McGrew, T. (2014). The Argument from Silence. Acta Analytica, 29(2), 215-228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12136-013-0205-5
Milstead, Z. (2018). Religion and Arguments from Silence. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 10(3), 155. https://doi.org/10.24204/ejpr.v10i3.1797
Pocock, J. G. A. (1957). The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law: A Study of English Historical Thought in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Cambridge UP.
Rorty, R. (1984). The historiography of philosophy: four genres. In R. Rorty, J. B. Schneewind, & Q. Scinner (Eds.), Philosophy in history. Essays on historiography of philosophy (pp. 49-75). Cambridge: Cambridge UP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625534.006Sigov, C. (Ed.). (2017). Trust. Dignity. Mercy. Assumption readings. [In Ukrainian]. Kyiv: Duh i Litera.
Skinner, Q. (1978). The Foundations of Modern Political Thought. Volume 1, The Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Stephens, C. (2011). A Bayesian Approach to Absent Evidence Reasoning. Informal Logic, 31(1), 56-65. https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v31i1.2967
Wagemans, J. H. M. (2003). Conceptualizing fallacies: The informal Logic and pragma-dialectic approaches to the argumentum ad ignorantiam. In F. H. van Eemeren et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the fifth conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (pp. 1049-1051). Amsterdam: Sic Sat, International Center for the Study of Argumentation.
Walton, D. (1996). Arguments from Ignorance. University Park, Pa: Penn State Press.
Walton, D. (1999a). Profiles of Dialogue for Evaluating Arguments From Ignorance. Argumentation, 13(1), 53-71. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007738812877
Walton, D. (1999b). The Appeal to Ignorance, or Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam. Argumentation, 13(4), 367-377. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007780012323
Woods, J. (2003). Paradox and Paraconsistency: Conflict Resolution in the Abstract Sciences. Cambridge UP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614002
Abstract views: 337 PDF Downloads: 285
- Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).